A to Z of Aviation Terminology - (F)

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FAA Part 135 refers to regulations issued by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for air taxi and on-demand operations using small aircraft. Part 135 is a set of standards and requirements for air operators who conduct air taxi and on-demand operations, which are defined as flights that are not part of a scheduled airline service.

These operations may include charter flights, air ambulance services, aerial survey work, and other specialized flights. Part 135 sets requirements for flight operations, maintenance, crew training, and other areas to ensure the safety of air taxi and on-demand operations.

In order to comply with Part 135, air operators must meet specific requirements for aircraft equipment, pilot qualifications, and flight operations. Additionally, Part 135 operators must adhere to strict safety standards and undergo regular FAA inspections and audits to ensure that they are operating in compliance with the regulations.

In summary, FAA Part 135 refers to regulations issued by the FAA for air taxi and on-demand operations using small aircraft. These regulations set standards and requirements for flight operations, maintenance, crew training, and other areas to ensure the safety of these types of operations.
A ferry flight refers to a flight made for the purpose of delivering an aircraft from one location to another, rather than for carrying passengers or cargo. Ferry flights are typically used to transport aircraft from the manufacturer or maintenance facility to a customer or another location for use.

Ferry flights may be necessary for a variety of reasons, including the delivery of a new aircraft, the relocation of an aircraft to a different base of operations, or the repositioning of an aircraft to another location for maintenance.

During a ferry flight, the aircraft may be flown by the manufacturer's test pilot, a delivery crew, or the aircraft's owner. The flight is typically planned to minimize the total flight time and to optimize fuel efficiency.

Ferry flights are subject to the same regulations and requirements as any other flight, including filing a flight plan, obtaining necessary clearances, and complying with all applicable safety and security regulations.

Overall, ferry flights play an important role in the aviation industry, allowing aircraft to be transported efficiently and safely to their intended destination for use.
A Fixed-Base Operator (FBO) is a company that provides aviation-related services at a general aviation airport. These services may include aircraft maintenance, fueling, flight training, aircraft rental, and hangaring. FBOs typically operate from a fixed location on the airport and serve as a one-stop-shop for general aviation customers. They may also offer amenities such as pilot lounges, conference rooms, and rental cars. An FBO is often considered the "front door" to an airport and plays an important role in providing support to private and business aircraft operations.
Flaps are movable devices located on the trailing edge of an aircraft's wings that increase the amount of lift generated by the wings. Flaps are used during takeoff and landing to help the aircraft lift off the runway or to descend at a slower speed.

There are several types of flaps, including plain flaps, split flaps, and fowler flaps, but their basic function is the same: to increase the amount of lift generated by the wings. When flaps are extended, they increase the camber, or curvature, of the wing, which results in a greater lift-to-drag ratio and a slower stall speed.

During takeoff, flaps are extended to help the aircraft achieve lift-off speed more quickly. This is especially important on short runways or when the aircraft is carrying a heavy load. During landing, flaps are extended to slow down the aircraft's descent rate, allowing it to touch down at a slower speed, making it easier to control and preventing damage to the landing gear.
A Fleet Manager is responsible for overseeing the planning, acquisition, maintenance, and operation of a company's aircraft fleet. This includes analyzing the current fleet's performance, identifying areas for improvement, negotiating contracts with suppliers, ensuring compliance with regulations and safety standards, and ensuring the efficient utilization of the fleet to maximize profitability. The Fleet Manager works closely with other departments such as Operations, Maintenance, and Finance to ensure the smooth and efficient operation of the company's aircraft.
A Flight Management System (FMS) is an electronic system used in modern aircraft to assist pilots in navigation, flight planning, and performance management. It automates many of the tasks previously performed manually, such as calculating the optimal flight path, fuel consumption, and navigation. An FMS receives information from various onboard sensors, navigation databases, and external sources, and uses this information to generate and update the flight plan. The FMS also interfaces with other aircraft systems, such as the autopilot, to help the pilots control the aircraft during all phases of flight.
A flight plan is a document that contains information about a planned flight, including the departure and arrival points, route, estimated time of arrival, and other details such as altitude, fuel on board, and number of passengers. Flight plans are filed with air traffic control prior to departure, and are used to manage and coordinate air traffic, ensure the safe and efficient flow of aircraft, and help locate aircraft in case of emergency. The flight plan also helps to ensure that the aircraft has the necessary information and resources for the flight, such as weather, navigation aids, and air traffic control clearances.
Final approach refers to the last part of an aircraft's flight path before landing. During this phase, the aircraft is aligned with the runway and descends to a predetermined altitude, usually about 1000-1500 feet above the ground, for a landing. The final approach is a critical part of the landing sequence and requires precise navigation, altitude control, and speed management to ensure a safe and successful landing. The aircraft's flight crew must communicate with air traffic control, monitor the aircraft's performance, and be prepared to initiate a missed approach procedure if necessary. The final approach is also the time when the aircraft's landing gear is extended and the flaps are adjusted to prepare for landing.
The Flight Deck refers to the cockpit or the area in an aircraft where the flight crew sits and operates the aircraft. The Flight Deck is the central control center of the aircraft and is where the pilots control the aircraft's systems and navigate its course. The Flight Deck is typically equipped with a variety of instruments and displays, including flight controls, navigation equipment, communication systems, and flight management systems, among others. The Flight Deck is designed to provide the flight crew with the information and control necessary to safely operate the aircraft during all phases of flight, including takeoff, cruise, descent, and landing. The Flight Deck is a critical component of the aircraft and is subject to strict safety and regulatory standards.
Flight time in aviation refers to the duration of a flight, typically measured from the moment of takeoff to the moment of landing. This is the total amount of time that the aircraft is in the air, excluding any time spent on the ground before takeoff or after landing. Flight time is used to calculate the operating costs of a flight, as well as to schedule crew duty times and maintain aircraft maintenance schedules.
Floats refers to pontoons attached to aircraft for the purpose of taking off and landing on water. The floats provide buoyancy, allowing the aircraft to float on water, and also act as landing gear. They are commonly used on seaplanes and amphibious aircraft.
Foreign Object Debris (FOD) refers to any type of object that is not supposed to be present in a specific environment, typically in the aviation industry it refers to any object that can cause damage to an aircraft. This can include anything from loose tools and equipment, to debris on the runway, to small wildlife that may come into contact with the aircraft. FOD is considered a major safety hazard in aviation and is actively monitored and removed to ensure the safe operation of aircraft.
Fuel surcharge is an additional fee added to the ticket price of an airline ticket to compensate for fluctuations in fuel prices. The cost of aviation fuel is one of the largest operating expenses for airlines, and changes in fuel prices can have a significant impact on the overall cost of operating an airline. As a result, airlines often implement fuel surcharges to help offset the cost of fuel and ensure that they can continue to operate their flights in a financially sustainable manner. Fuel surcharges are typically reviewed and adjusted periodically by airlines, depending on changes in fuel prices and market conditions.
The fuselage is the main body of an aircraft that provides structure and support for the crew, passengers, and cargo. It is usually located between the front (nose) and the rear (tail) of the aircraft and is designed to be aerodynamically shaped to reduce drag and ensure stability in flight. The fuselage typically houses the cockpit, passenger cabin, and cargo hold, as well as systems such as the electrical and hydraulic systems. The fuselage is usually one of the largest and most complex parts of an aircraft, and is often constructed from a combination of light-weight materials such as aluminum and composites to minimize weight and maximize strength.

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